The Archaic Image of Meybod

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Narin Castle

naringhalaeh

Ancient geographers often mention three urban elements in describing ancient cities. These three elements are: 1- Khandaj (Qahandz) 2- Sharestan (city) 3- Biruneh (Rabz)
Based on the information provided by ancient geographical sources, most of the ancient cities such as Isfahan, Bam, Bukhara, etc. had the same general sections. The same three elements are also evident in the study of the construction of the old city of Meybod: a- Kahandaj (Narin Qaleh) b- Sharestan (the area of ​​the old fence including the upper and lower Meybod neighborhoods and the small neighborhood) c- Bironeh (settlements around Sharestan)

The forts were mostly built in pre-Islamic times, mostly in the Medo-Achaemenid and Parthian eras, and had single-density buildings built on natural or artificial heights. The purpose of building them on the heights was to facilitate their defense. Is.
Although all the inhabitants of these enclosed groups were its guardians during the enemy's invasion and difficulties, they were mostly guarded by the Revolutionary Guards, who called them "guards". Narin Qaleh Meybod is exactly a khandaj. This ancient building is one of the few surviving ancient brick buildings in Iran that, despite the many bites of time, still remains and can be considered a symbol of the historical and cultural identity of the Yazd region.

The long history of Narin Qala is such that this khandaj has found a mythical identity, so that even historical sources of the 8th and 9th centuries have mixed it with legendary descriptions. This mystery even exists in the name of the castle. Narin Qaleh, which is called "Naranj Qaleh" by the people of Meybod, was known as "Dejdalan" in ancient times, and Ghadma considered it as one of the first settlements in the Yazd region.

Mohammad Shabankareh considers this fort to be our "white fortress" which is mentioned in Shahnameh. Moinuddin Natanzi in the ninth century has expressed the same narration with skepticism. At the same time, Ahmad Katib attributed the construction of the fort to Suleiman the Prophet and said that the treasure of Suleiman's burial was taken there and no king took this peak to war and army unless they surrendered to the subjects. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the narrations attributed to ancient Jamshid have been assigned to Hazrat Suleiman in post-Islamic Iran.
Narin Castle has been raised from the beginning on top of a high hill that overlooks the entire Meybod region, so that the body of the castle can be seen from a distance as an important element. At the time Shabastan Meybod was built, Khandaj was located in its southeastern corner.

Narin Castle, due to its name, is a dense complex and enclosed in high nested walls. This building is formed in 5 floors, of course, the floors are clearly separated from each other and in fact it is a kind of concave and mixed formation of places from the floor to the roof of the citadel. Several sections and gates separate the upper and lower parts of the castle
We said that all of Narin Castle was placed on a prominent clay hill or, according to the ancient historians of Yazd, on "Kuh-e Gol". Is. In order to lay the foundation of the multi-storey castle, the underlying hill has been made a separate place with a ditch dug around it to be able to defend it. Prepare it as a bed for the required spaces. As it turns out, they even used the vertical wall of the stepped body of this hill to install the gate and dig the "boken" and openings of the underground corridors of the castle. There is no shirt in these bookcases, and it appears that they did not even have a skirt.

Almost all of this dense complex is made of clay and mud, and the walls are often in the form of stratification, and some are clay and mud, and some are clay and stratum. All spaces, areas, walls, stands and gates of the building are equipped with beams, openings and towers, which according to other defensive features of the castle, has shown its military importance in ancient times.

The main and ancient part of the castle is located in the upper part of the complex. The appearance of the building shows that it has been repaired many times, but its oldest parts have remained relatively intact due to newer repairs. The bricks used in the foundations of these parts have large and thick molds and their size is mostly (10 * 24 * 40) centimeters, but bricks with sizes (11 * 28 * 45) and (10 * 22 * ​​37) Cm and other sizes are also seen in the mother of the same footing. Perhaps at that time a specific size and standard for the form of bricks was not yet determined, or perhaps this part of the building was built in an accelerated manner. In this part, the effects of various erosions and restorations from different historical periods can be seen, and fortunately, these restorations have caused the protection of the oldest part of the building. It seems that the lower areas were built in newer periods. In the central courtyard of the castle, which has now been dug up and piled up, traces of brick and mortar constructions have also been observed. The main wall of the castle is surrounded by a circular (elliptical) plan, surrounded by a wide moat, most of which still remains.

Except in the southern part, the moat is so large in other respects that at that time it was likely to have a suitable field for various uses such as gatherings, military exercises, camps or applications such as dock, etc. The main gate of the castle was embedded in the outer wall two meters above the ground. This gate had a very strong and special door, the hinge of which was placed on the floor of the gate, so that it could be opened and closed with strong chains and pulleys, and when opened on the opposite platform, it slept as a "bridge board" and pedestrians and riders could walk on it. To pass.
In the main valley of the castle, there was a watchtower and special defense facilities that could be used to open or break or burn at the entrance of the castle during heavy sieges and enemy attacks. In this way, in addition to diagonal and horizontal holes for surveillance and shooting, several vertical holes were installed in the "gate" that in case of enemy invasion of the Revolutionary Guards, they could pour hot water, hot oil and fire and ... attackers from the castle gate. To drive. The upper floors had the same equipment.
Behind the main gate, which was actually the gate of the castle, there was a relatively large chrysalis (corridor) (about 50 square meters) from which three smaller gates separated. The second gate was opened to the large courtyard inside the castle as the second gate. The gate, chrysalis and its equipment were a strong defense complex and in fact the most sensitive part of the castle defense.
The large inner courtyard of the castle, which can be called the central courtyard, was located behind the second wall and many places and spaces needed by the inhabitants of the castle. This area, which has an area of ​​about 10,000 square meters, has been accumulated from soil and debris after the recent destruction, has risen a few meters and has risen higher than the main floor (it has become a playground). Several floors of the ruined places of the castle are buried under this playground. The places of this complex are also made of clay and mud, and some of them have dug the base of the castle in the form of "bokon" in the body of the hill, some of which are still visible on the southern front of the castle building.
The third gate and gate is located next to the eastern wall of the vast inner courtyard and fortunately it is still half-ruined and from there it reaches the fourth gate which opens to the next "chapter" and the relatively important areas of the citadel on the upper floors. The main part and apparently the oldest part of the citadel building is located in the form of a cube complex in this floor and it itself consists of 3 interconnected floors. To reach the upper floors, you have to go around the Fasil corridor to the west.
The fifth "Darband" of the castle is located on the western wall of the citadel and separates the upper parts or the so-called royal residence from the lower floors. In this floor, relatively clean rooms and areas have been built, which have been used by the rulers. On the highest floor of the castle, parts of which are still intact, a north-facing porch has been opened, from which the whole area could overlook the entire area for several kilometers. This porch in Meybod is called "Shahneshin" porch. It seems that the Khandajs often had such a position and perspective. The tall royal city overlooking the ancient city seems to have been called "Ivan" and "Kiakhreh" and in Arabic "Tarbal".
The porch of the royal residence of Narin Castle is still a building overlooking the city and it is clear from its relatively new repairs that it has been used in some way until the beginning of the present century.
According to the available evidence and narrations, Narin Castle had a complex system of underground traffic and secret communication. No comprehensive research has been done yet on the communication system and how to use the underground corridors of the castle. The openings of some of these corridors can still be seen everywhere in the castle. Many Meybodi middle-aged people remember that there were the remains of a covered corridor along the tall and thick ramparts of the castle. The corridor was large enough for a loaded animal to cross. The people of Meybod still tell the story that from this fort there was an underground corridor to the site of the black stone mill in the west of Bideh. This underground and secret corridor, which was probably built with prudent considerations, was used for covert communication, meeting needs, escaping from the enemy during war and siege, etc., and is itself a sign of the credit and economic sensitivity of this ditch. It is considered social and military. It is said that during the war and the siege, or even in normal times, the movements and transfers of goods that they wanted to be out of sight of everyone were done through this underground corridor. Behind the gate that leads to the highest gate of the castle, there is an opening of an underground canal that people think is the opening of the same corridor.
We said that the antiquity of the castle and the unknownness of some of its works and spaces have created several legends. One of them is a well, the mouth of which is located at the site of the citadel and on the right side of the corridor. The people of Meybod tell a legend about this well, which has made this well known as the "Diamond Wheel" well. People believed that if anyone listened to this well, they would hear the sound of a diamond wheel spinning. It is said that this well was the place of royal treasures and some people consider it a prison and a dungeon. This well has a special structure that experts consider to be related to the inexperience of man in digging wells and is naturally one of the evidences of the castle's longevity. This well is square in length with a side of 1.30 meters. In drilling such wells, the wellhead operated in a standing and low-rise method and therefore needed more space, while in drilling a well in a round manner, the wellman operated in a sitting and rotating manner. The latter method is newer and less expensive.

The pigeon Tower

 

kabootar

this building is located in the southeast of the old fort of Meybod (the current location of Meybod governorate). From the outside, it is a circular tower decorated with special patterns, and from the inside, it has three floors and is equipped with thousands of nests to attract and keep migratory birds.

The Pigeon Khan Tower is notable both for its protection of homeless birds and for its use of fertilizer to farmers in the past.

Mehrjard Castle

qale e mehrjard


In the northern part of Bashnighan, in the depression next to the current road, there is a quadrangular castle with eight towers, which is still used for storage. In the upper part of the castle towers, beautiful designs have been designed. Apparently, this castle is from the early Qajar era.

The Grand Mosque

jamehmeybod


Meybod Grand Mosque is a collection of several mosques that offer various types of space with multiple designs. This mosque is one of the traditional porch mosques in Yazd region, which opens from the central courtyard (courtyard) with the repetition plan of the arch in the bodies, and spaces such as the dome of the house and the wide and high porch and side naves as a summer section in the direction of Qibla and Winter naves (or hothouses) are formed in three other directions and its main entrance opens to the courtyard with a relatively high door on the east side, passing through a partition space (porch). Haji Hassan Ali Small Mosque in the northeast corner of the complex has an arched courtyard and a nave in the north direction, which is connected to the ruined space behind. Hassani Mosque (Imam Hassan AS) in the northwest of the complex has a house dome, with two rows of naves in the west and east and one row in the north, the entrance of this section is also from the same front. The space without western construction used to be the site of a mosque that does not exist now. In general, the old building of the complex is built of clay and mud and does not have much variety of materials. The inner shell of the porch, the forehead of the pedestals of the courtyard facade, on the four sides and the outer shell of the dome, are worked with simple geometric brick designs. Minimal arrays can be seen in the original architectural space of the mosque. On the inscription of mosaic tile which is installed in the inner body of the altar, at the end of the dome of the house, date 867 AH. AH and the name of the twelve Imams and on a wooden inscription on the entrance door dated 913 AH. AH and a verse from the Qur'an has been written.

According to historical writings and architectural and archaeological documents, Meybod Grand Mosque is one of the ancient mosques of Islamic civilization in Iran. The foundation of the mosque is related to the second century AH, and the evidence indicates the design of a nave mosque with a courtyard and covered space. The depth of the nave in the direction of the qibla was equal to two carpets and the corner of the pedestals had half-columns on which the load-bearing arches were placed. The mosque of this time is located next to the ancient mosques of the first Fahraj, Saveh, Isfahan, Damghan and Yazd. Simultaneously with the architectural changes in the scope of Iranian civilization and the entry of Iranian spatial elements, there was a change in the spatial design and map of Meybod Grand Mosque. In this way, the building was transformed from a nave design into a domed mosque with a porch and expanded to the west, and thick and tall minarets were added to the space complex at the end of the north side. (Around the sixth century AH) But the historical expansion of the Grand Mosque occurred after the seventh century. The dome of the brick house and the surrounding nave, known as Imam Hassan (AS), were added to the mosque in the northwest, and the space behind the minaret became part of the covered part of the mosque. A porch mosque was attached to the west side of the old mosque, which was the last stage of the expansion of space, the traces of which existed in the current flat and empty land until a few years ago. The direction of the qibla in the spaces related to the expansion period deviates from the old mosque. Around the ninth century AH, repairs and changes were made in various parts of the building after the damage and the current altar replaced the old altar; The date 867 is related to the same time. The change in the design of the courtyard of the mosque and the construction of the northern nave instead of the old spaces and part of the minaret, later occurred in the building. The latest changes and major developments of the mosque are related to the Qajar period, which include the construction of Haji Hassan Ali Mosque in the northeast of the complex and Haji Rajabali winter nave in the western part of the courtyard, with different qiblas from the activities of the two good brothers who replaced the old structures. It is a relatively large mosque, with a summer courtyard and porch and a large winter hothouse. Its historical and scenic monuments are introduced as follows:

1- In the great entrance, it was built in the year 913 AH, on the two sides of which two inscriptions have been engraved in calligraphy: Qal Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, and the Holy of Holies, and the mosques of God, may God bless them and grant them peace.

2- In the altar of the greenhouse, a brown stone measuring 45 x 76 cm has been installed and on its surface there is an old Kofi with the following silver inscriptions: Margin: In the name of God, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate. Say: God is one, ... one is enough. In the arch: La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, under the arch: Allah Akbar Kabira, Al-Mulk Allah × His sequel was not recited.

3- In the altar of the summer porch, a piece of well-cut tombstone with decorative Kufic lines and motifs, related to the grave of the author of Kashf al-Asrar, measuring 48.78 cm, has been installed; With these phrases: First margin: In the name of God, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate. Those who say: Our Lord! Then do We send down upon them the angels, except they repay ... We are the ones who live in life. Second margin: In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. There is no god but God ... and we created them. Third margin: In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. The testimony of God is that there is no god but He and the angels, and they know the knowledge standing in installments, there is no god but He, the Beloved, the Wise. Forehead: La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammad the Messenger of Allah. Al-Qaws: In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Say: God is one, ... one is enough. Text: This is the grave of Al-Saeed Fatemeh Bint Al-Imam Saeed Rashid Al-Din Abi Al-Fadl Ibn Abi Sa'd Ibn Ahmad Mehrizad

4- In the upper part of the altar, there is a square mosaic tile inscription in the middle of which is empty and it forms a margin in which twelve Imams are written. The date of this inscription is zero in the year 867 AH.

5- There is an old waqf piece in the courtyard of the wide porch, measuring 7.40 × 3.14 meters, in which the role of twenty-four rugs is woven. Abdul Ali Meybodi puts this zillow on the bridge under the dome of the mosque. Do not go out unless they go to the nave of the mosque. Written in the city of Rabi al-Thani in the year 808, the work of Master Ali Bidak Ibn Haji Meybodi. Meybod Brick Glacier Next to the Shah Abbasi Caravanserai complex, there is a yellow conical dome that used to be a glacier. It is remarkable in terms of recognizing one of the tools of civilization and life of that region, and especially that its building is also old (200 years ago). Meybod refrigerator is made entirely of raw clay and consists of the main components of the ice basin, shading wall, tank and brick dome.

 anbarkolar

Clar
Reservoir
 Clar Reservoir is located in front of Robat and on the old road, it was built in 1070 AH. Its date stone is mounted on the left ledge of the entrance; With these words: The architect of Hemmat Rafi Ninth, the successor of the dynasty of decency and honor, the owner of the vast people Mirza Mohammad Sami Al-Maghfor , In the seventeenth year after the first. It was completed under the leadership of Khajeh Mohammad Taghi Firoozabadi. The book of Abd al-Muhammad × was not read لی Al-Yazdi, forgive him.

Next to this reservoir, the ruins of an old refrigerator or glacier can also be seen.

Printing House
Another important building was the printing press, whose main function was to rest government chapars and replace tired horses with fresh horses. Chaplains transmitted letters and government orders from the center to the states and vice versa. The history of printing houses in Iran dates back to pre-Islamic centuries. Both Herodotus and Xenophon have given detailed explanations about the printing presses of Iran. Herodotus writes: "In homes, fast horses are provided. In this way, the agile riders take the government writings from the centers to the nearest printing house, to the printing house that is present, and he immediately moves, takes it to the second printing house, and submits it back to the printing house. In this way, the chaparrals move day and night, delivering the orders of the center to the states. Regarding the speed of the chaparrals, the historian says that it is inconceivable that a moving movement would move faster .... Xenophon attributes the establishment of the printing presses to Cyrus the Great, and says that in order to determine the distance of the printing presses from each other, they experimented with how much a horse could walk per day without getting tired, and they measured it. "Even if this is an exaggeration, it is certain that no one can move as fast as the chaparrals." During the reign of the Parthian and Sassanid governments and after Islam, printing houses were very important for government agencies and printing houses were the eyes and ears of the government in addition to carrying out correspondence and transmitting various news to the center from different places. "During the Qajar period, travelers preferred to stay in printing houses because the rooms were cleaner than the caravanserai rooms. Chapars of this period delivered travelers to their destination in exchange for money. As mentioned in the previous section, a large number of caravanserais remain in Iran; But there are few printing presses left in the country from ancient times, and Maxim Ciro explains in his book: "For various reasons, these types of stations are now gone, and if any trace of their ruins remains, it is not very discernible." In fact, these printing presses were mostly made of raw clay or stratified, and in many cases were on the way among the settlements. "Sometimes a corner of it was dedicated to chaparrs."

It is one of the old printing houses that is relatively intact next to Meybod Caravanserai, and as it is clear in these figures, these buildings, like the caravanserais, have towers and fortifications and guards to ensure the security of the people inside the printing house. These buildings, following other buildings in the central plateau of Iran, had a central courtyard and mansions were located around this courtyard. On the three sides behind the stables were stables where cattle were kept in winter and at night. On the fourth side, which is located between the courtyard and the entrance of the building, there are rooms for chaparrals and possibly passengers. Like inns, this type of spatial division and physical shape of the printing presses, in addition to facilitating the operation of the printing presses and maintaining its security, protected the interior of the building from adverse climatic conditions; And inside the printing presses, it creates a small and independent climatic environment and protects the environmental conditions inside the building against excessive fluctuations in temperature, wind and storms. With the advent of the automobile as well as the new postal system, the traditional function of printing presses and consequently their physical body is disappearing.

The mill
At the entrance of the building, the arch of the building is collapsing and the high load pressure has caused the mud to be pushed down from one side, which is very likely to collapse. The cover on the four arches is a bald cover that has collapsed. The entrance of the mill starts from behind the wall of Sharestan and after passing the ramp two meters, it passes under the wall and enters the inner stairs. There is a porch in this part and then the stairs continue to the four arches. At present, the wall of Sharestan in the area of ​​the mill has been completely destroyed and there is no trace of the vestibule and stairs except for the book-like room at the entrance porch. The mill area is surrounded by a layer of brick, which is also damaged by climatic factors, including parts of the eastern wall collapsed due to the growth of fig branches adjacent to the garden, and the northern part, which is the entrance to the mill, includes a demolition wall. Has been civilization. The growth of a special plant that is native to desert areas on the wall surfaces and the penetration of its thick and deep roots in the fence and the mill building, has been an important factor in the destruction of the building. Ashkzar mill, which was built 20 km away from Yazd city and at a depth of 7 meters, according to the architectural style and type of decorations of its main courtyard and the type of materials available, it can be concluded that the existing works are related to the eighth century AH and during the time of Seyyed Rokn al-Din. Has been. This building has a sloping corridor that leads to the main courtyard with a length of fifty-six meters and a width of 4 meters. This mill is supplied with water from Hemmatabad aqueduct. The main courtyard of the mill is octagonal in shape, with four sides each being four and eighty-four and the other four sides each being two and seventy-five. Each of the small sides has a pavilion one meter deep, and on the east and west sides, there are two rooms with a front, and the south pavilion of the courtyard is the place of the mill. One of the decorative factors of this building is the style of brickwork and its divisions in the main part or area of ​​the mill and brick applications, which start from eight and end in thirty-two. The small mill in front of Narin Castle is also one of the works of Mozaffarian period. The water of the aqueduct is poured into the furnace with pressure from a height of more than ten meters and causes the millstone to rotate. This mill with its sabbatical alleys and pomegranate orchards around it and the nearby pigeon tower and Narin Castle, which is one of the masterpieces of the world's brick buildings, could attract many tourists. Bideh Mill is also one of the very old mills which is located six kilometers away from the small mill and it is said that an underground tunnel was dug through Narin Castle to the point where people could travel to and from the mill during the siege. In front of this mill is Pir Cheragh or one of the ancient shrines of Iran. Also on the other side and above the hill, there is a well known as Sahib al-Zaman. Deh No Hassanabad aqueduct in Mehriz Yazd is the only aqueduct in the path of which there are five mills and they are still active. The names of these mills are: Abbas Abad, Dosangi Abbas Abad, Anjir, Bibi Begum and Mollashamir. About 700 years ago, two benefactors, Hassan and Hossein Shah, dug an aqueduct 45 meters away to irrigate the agricultural lands of the Dehno region at the foot of Shir Kooh. Not only are there many mills still standing, but the names of many villages indicate where there were mills, such as the High Mill. Down mill. Mill above the head garden. Two water mills of Yazd, including the valuable monuments of the eighth and twelfth centuries of this city, after years of oblivion, are repaired and re-launched under the dirt and asphalt of Azad Street. These two very beautiful water mills, which according to historical sources are unique historical monuments of Yazd, will be repaired and exploited soon after a long period of time when the soil was buried under the rafters. Wazir and Kushk-e-Naw water mills are located in Fahadan neighborhood, located in the historical context of Yazd. Due to the necessity of using the water of the aqueduct to rotate the wheels of these mills, its design and construction has been done in such a way that the oven, the dock and the flour-making place are dug at a depth of 30 to 40 meters and a stairway is reached to reach it. They have created a war from the surface to the depths of the earth, which leads to the mill. From the beginning of this entrance to the center of the mill, five screws have been created, which are placed on top of each lighting screw. One of the two aqueducts that provided the water needed for each is still running. The circular aqueduct that still supplies water to this mill is the famous Zarch aqueduct, which is one of the most significant historical monuments in the field of water supply networks in Yazd. Unfortunately, its two streams of hot water and fresh water have now dried up, leaving only the brackets of salt water that are still able to move the mill and grind the wheat needed. The two Wazir mills and the new pavilion have been mentioned in many books and historical monuments in the books of Bayaz Safar and the monuments of Yazd. Iraj Afshar, the author of the Yazd Memorabilia book, especially emphasized the tourism values ​​of these two mills and said: It will be for travelers and tourists, and it is even easy to build a coffee house in it and attract more and better visitors to Yazd. The new pavilion mill is located at a depth of 15 meters above the ground and the temple of this mill has two screws and its dock is made of bricks. Wazir Mill is also one of the works of the eighth century AH. The water mill in Baghshahi neighborhood of Meybod, which had been buried under rubble for many years, was discovered by experts from the research base and its restoration operation was started. Baghshahi Water Mill is located in the northern part of Baghshahi Meybod neighborhood. This mill is surrounded by numerous gardens and old buildings. Khoydak is located in the old village of Khoydak, seventeen kilometers south of Yazd, on the Yazd-Bafgh road. Due to the use of local materials and the methods and styles of traditional desert architecture in this castle, it is placed in the row of Bam citadel. This building is one of the ancient castles of Yazd, which dates back to the ninth and tenth centuries AH, and the walls around the castle have been constructed with a combination of clay and stratification and with beautiful decorations on the exterior. Remains of a water mill can also be seen near this historic castle. The mill was located in the path of the aqueduct, which indicates the existence of a water supply system in the castle, and the guards of the castle also protected it from being cut off by enemies.

Refrigerators

yaghchal


Old refrigerators are one of the best building installations to store cold energy. Unfortunately, most of the glaciers in Yazd province have disappeared in recent decades, but Abarkooh and Meybod glaciers are still stable and stable, and Meybod glacier is one of the best available.

According to the available information and artifacts, there were two glacier buildings in Meybod: one in the southern part of the city and next to the caravanserai road, which is in front of the main ligament of the city. Fortunately, most of this building is still standing and is considered one of the most significant architectural examples of such works. Another glacier was located in the northern parts of Meybod and a large village in the vicinity of this building took its name from this building or changed its name from another name to a glacier and this settlement still stands. The refrigerator was destroyed about thirty years ago, after the construction of the main street and its related renovations, and no trace of it remains. Only in the first volume of the book "Yazd Memoirs" by Mr. Iraj Afshar, a photograph of it remains.

Glaciers were built over a relatively large area due to technical necessities and were typically built on land with relatively low soil permeability. All building materials of refrigerators are made of Vogl Vakla bricks from four main parts: A: Ice basin B: Shading walls C: Ice tank D: Large dome

A- Ice basin: a rectangular area, large and shallow in the northern part of the building. The depth of this glacial pond is a maximum of half a meter and is surrounded by three high walls in the southern, eastern and western directions. This pond was usually dug on flat ground and no materials were used in its construction.

B- Shading walls: Three thick and high walls that are built in the southern, eastern and western directions of the glacier area and this area turns the ice basin into a very cold canopy that the sun is behind them throughout the winter. It keeps the ice pond much colder than the surrounding areas, and in fact, with the same technique of "creating a very cold shade", the water in the ponds or the pond in front of the refrigerator freezes and, as we will say, the ice is transferred to the refrigerator tank. The height of these walls in Meybod refrigerator is about 8 meters and the length of the south wall is 42 meters and the east and west walls are 20 meters. The thickness of the walls is about 2 meters.

C - Ice tank: Ice tank or place of accumulation of ice pieces in the refrigerator is a large funnel that has been dug in the ground and at the bottom of it, a "waste water" road has been installed, which leads to a deeper well. This wastewater is actually a waterway that gradually pushes melted ice out of the ice tank. The wall of the funnel-shaped tank is usually covered only with thatch. The depth of this pit in Meybod glacier is about 6 meters, around which a relatively wide corridor (1.5 meters) has been created for traffic.

D- Large dome: On the funnel tank, the refrigerator is covered by a large conical dome, and in fact, it is this large dome that with its thick walls and large volume, creates a suitable protection for keeping the tank ice. This large dome is erected behind the south wall and in the middle of it, right on the reservoir, and it has two gates in the north and south, from where ice is collected and removed.

The glacier area of ​​Meybod Glacier is a shallow mud pool with an approximate area of ​​800 square meters and a depth of approximately 0.5 meters. The long canopy walls are 2 meters thick and 8 meters high, which are divided into several arches and columns. The length of the south wall is 42 meters and the east and west walls are 20 meters each. A main gate with a width of 2.2 meters and a height of 2 meters in the middle of the south wall leads to the reservoir and the dome and almost all the traffic, storage and unloading of ice has been done from this gate. Another gate is installed symmetrically to the north of the dome, which has little role and is often closed. The main gate is also opened only when traveling. The funnel tank of the refrigerator is hardened in clay soil, the diameter of the mouth of this tank is 13 meters and its depth is 6 meters. The reason for digging the funnel tank of the refrigerator in this hard clay, as we have said before, is to prevent water from penetrating into the ground. The large, conical dome of the glacier was built on a foundation of hard ground, so that the first bricks of the dome were built immediately on the same bed of hard ground. The surface of the circular base of this dome is about 300 square meters and the height of the dome is about 15 meters.
The width of the brick wall of the dome wall is skillfully reduced from the bottom up so that it reaches from 20.2 meters at the base to 20 centimeters (the width of a brick) at the top of the dome. The number of brick vessels in the dome is 250.
Refrigerators operate mainly at two times and at relatively short intervals of the year. One in "Cheleh" in winter and the other in "Cheleh" in summer. During the winter, which was the season for preparing and storing ice, some water was poured into the icy area at night. The water in the cold winter weather and in the shelter of the shade of the tall walls would freeze some of it, which if it was thick enough, would divide it into smaller pieces and transfer it to the reservoir, otherwise other nights water would enter the pond. And in a series of times, the ice is tied together in a flat manner and then it is broken and transferred to the tank. The ice inside the tank was separated with layers of straw, wood, etc., and finally isolated from the surrounding air, and after filling the tank, the doors of the dome were closed with mud bricks and thatch.

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